Spinal trauma

Injuries to the spinal column and its segments are called pathological conditions of varying severity, primarily due to trauma damage. In most cases, these are the consequences of falls, blows, bruises, and fractures of different severity.

Also, traumatization of the spine and intervertebral discs occurs under the influence of certain diseases of a chronic nature. For example, the risk of injury increases with pathological bone fragility, conditions affecting the ligamentous apparatus, etc.

In each case, an injury to the spine or its segments might cause serious consequences, depending on the damage. The greatest danger, in this case, is associated with damage to the spinal cord and nerve bundles localized in the spine. Such pathological conditions are characterized by a violation of the integrity of bones and other spinal column structures.

Often injuries to the spine and intervertebral discs cause the serious motor and neurological disorders; severe injuries threaten to disable the patient. In all these cases, adequate treatment and a fundamental approach to rehabilitation because this is the only way a person can restore lost functions and return to a normal life. At Kliniken Schmieder, rehabilitation programs are developed for each patient individually, and highly qualified rehabilitation specialists and doctors of related specializations participate in the recovery process.

Causes of injuries to the spine and intervertebral discs

The leading cause of spinal injury is sustained damage. It may be a fall from a great height, a blow, a traffic accident, etc. The result of such incidents is a violation of the integrity of the intervertebral discs’ bones, ligaments, and cartilage, which is an injury.

The most common factors that increase the risk of injury include:

  • various deformations of the spinal column (scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis);
  • the presence of hernias and protrusions of the intervertebral discs in history;
  • oncological lesions of the bone structures of the spine;
  • chronic diseases, including osteoarticular tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, osteochondrosis, osteoporosis, and others.


Treatment methods for spinal column injuries and intervertebral discs depend on the nature and severity of the damage and the causes of its occurrence. In most cases, effective treatment requires an integrated approach that combines surgical interventions with conservative therapy methods:

  • Conservative treatment is relevant for minor injuries (without violating the integrity of the spine’s structures), as well as an additional treatment after surgery. Conservative therapy involves rest, bed rest, fixation of the spine, and drug therapy (medications are determined individually). Subsequently, physiotherapy exercises with a gradual increase in physical activity and motor activity and the wearing of fixing and supporting structures (bandages, corsets) are prescribed.
  • Surgical treatment – the features of surgical intervention depend on the nature of the injury, localization, and severity of the damage. Spine surgeries are restorative; the goal is to restore mobility and avoid neurological disorders and other complications (if possible). In surgical intervention, fragments of broken bones and structures that cannot be fixed are removed. Afterward, implants that replace the damaged areas (prostheses, stabilizing systems) are installed.

Rehabilitation after injuries to the spine and intervertebral discs

Regardless of the severity of the injury, every patient with spinal injuries requires rehabilitation. It is necessary for a full recovery, restoration of mobility, and in some cases, lost functions. The duration and features of rehabilitation programs are individual and depend on the severity of injuries and the nuances of treatment.

In Kliniken Schmieder, rehabilitation programs for patients with spinal injuries include:

  • Almost every patient faces the critical and most challenging part of restoring mobility. Rehabilitation programs, in this case, are developed individually by experienced rehabilitation specialists. Methods depend on the injury’s characteristics and the treatment’s success. All loads are distributed gradually, given in doses to strengthen the muscular corset of the back. Rehabilitation measures to restore mobility include physiotherapy exercises, apparatus physiotherapy, Bobath therapy, the PNF method, etc.
  • Occupational Therapy – This rehabilitation area applies to people severely injured and with severe mobility restrictions. This direction of therapy is necessary for a person to re-learn movements, restore some lost functions from scratch and be able to independently self-serve in everyday life.
  • Psychological assistance is integral to all rehabilitation programs because a spinal injury and its consequences are a difficult psychological challenge. Most patients must cope with anxiety, doubts, confusion, and depressive states. To recover not only physically but also psycho-emotionally, experienced psychologists and psychotherapists work with patients in the clinic, and both individual and group sessions are provided.

It is important to understand that the optimal time is decided for each rehabilitation stage. So, psychological help can be started quite early, while to restore mobility, it is necessary to wait for proper tissue regeneration.