Parkinson’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a chronic, slowly progressive pathology of the brain. A degenerative central nervous system process characterizes the pathology. The mechanism of the development and progression of the disease is associated with the pathological synthesis of the alpha-synuclein protein in nerve cells. As a result, there is a gradual death of the affected cellular structures of the nervous system.

The progression of Parkinson’s disease is accompanied by the death of neurons that provide the following functions:

  • dopamine production;
  • motor activity;
  • control of muscle tone;
  • regulation of thought processes.

Consequently, the development of Parkinson’s disease causes several disorders affecting the patient’s motor skills, motor functions, and the intellectual sphere. It is believed that alpha-synuclein formation in nerve cells begins long before the first signs of the disease appear — Parkinson’s disease debuts with a significant central nervous system impairment, which becomes known after diagnosis.

Given all of the above and the fact that there is no complete treatment for Parkinson’s disease today, the rehabilitation of patients is of particular importance. Therapeutic and rehabilitation programs are aimed at slowing the disease’s progression and improving patients’ quality of life.

Causes of Parkinson’s Disease

Despite significant advances in diagnostic processes and supportive care for Parkinson’s disease, the true causes of this pathology remain unknown. At the same time, specialists in the field of neurology identify several factors that are highly likely to predispose the development of the disease:

  • genetic predisposition (cases of this disease in the family’s medical history);
  • genetically determined gene mutations;
  • traumatic brain injury in the past;
  • disorders of cerebral circulation as a result of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke;
  • neoplasms in various parts of the brain;
  • consequences of severe intoxication, etc.

Once having arisen, the process of degeneration in neural trunks becomes irreversible and constantly progresses. It is only possible to slow down the destruction of neurons to some extent.


The principles of Parkinson’s disease treatment in the early and late stages of the course are quite different. When constructing treatment tactics, it is also necessary to consider the patient’s age, concomitant diseases, and other factors.

If it is possible to identify pathology in the early stages of progression, conservative treatment involves:

  • taking drugs that stimulate the production of dopamine;
  • drugs that block the reuptake of dopamine;
  • methods that contribute to the inhibition of dopamine decay processes;
  • neuroprotective drugs.

In the later stages of the progression of the disease, with the aggravation of existing disorders, the only effective direction of conservative therapy is taking levodopa.

In modern medicine, surgical techniques are used to treat patients with Parkinson’s disease:

Stereotactic stimulation – special electrodes are implanted during the operation, continuously stimulating the extrapyramidal nervous system.
Transplantation of dopaminergic neurons is a new yet experimental method of treatment. Transplanted neurons increase dopamine synthesis, improving the patient’s condition.

Rehabilitation for Parkinson’s disease

Because there is no full-fledged treatment for Parkinson’s disease today, rehabilitation is of paramount importance in the fight against the pathological process. Rehabilitation programs are individually developed for each Kliniken Schmieder patient and are adjusted over time. Thus, it is possible not only to slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease but to respond to changes on time, more effectively improving the patient’s quality of life.

The most effective rehabilitation programs include:

  • Movement rehabilitation is an extensive field of rehabilitation for Parkinson’s disease, which includes exercise therapy, Nordic walking, tai chi, treadmill training, aerobic training, etc. Each of these disciplines allows you to work on the range of motion, maintaining balance, and the general increase in the patient’s physical fitness, which can delay the onset of severe disorders.
  • Virtual reality and biofeedback technologies – combining virtual reality technologies with biofeedback show good results. During such training, visual, auditory, and tactile functions are involved, which is achieved through specialized equipment.
  • Cognitive rehabilitation – in addition to motor impairment, Parkinson’s patients face severe problems of cognitive decline. As part of cognitive rehabilitation, specially designed exercises are carried out, focused on training memory, psychomotor and visual-spatial functions, and verbal activity.
  • Speech therapy correction is aimed at improving or restoring speech and maintaining swallowing function in the later stages of the development of the pathological process. Professional speech therapists develop exercise programs to support the functions of the muscle groups responsible for swallowing and participating in the construction of speech.
  • Psychotherapy and social rehabilitation – these areas can be called related. In the first case, the goal is to maintain a normal psycho-emotional state of the patient, to prevent depressive states. In the second case, attention is paid to the patient’s adaptation to new living conditions, along with the willingness to be a full-fledged part of society, regardless of the consequences of the disease.

Each stage of the rehabilitation program is essential and allows you to maintain certain functions and solve specific problems. For this reason, not only an individual but also an integrated approach is so important.