Epilepsy is a chronic pathology of the brain which is non-infectious. This pathological process is a consequence of the occurrence in the brain of areas of epileptic activity. These are small areas of excessive or abnormal movement of neurons that cause the onset of an epileptic seizure.

Epilepsy is characterized by repetitive, spontaneous seizures during which the person cannot control himself. Moreover, almost every patient does not remember the attack’s very fact, being disorientated after its completion. The following manifestations characterize directly epileptic seizures:

  • involuntary motor convulsions, convulsions;
  • short-term vegetative disorders;
  • uncontrolled sensory disturbances;
  • inability to control mental and mental functions;
  • total disorientation;
  • a state close to unconscious.

Epilepsy affects people of all age groups, regardless of social status. According to rough estimates, this disease is diagnosed in about 50 million people on the planet.

With adequate treatment, in about 70% of cases, the disease can be completely controlled, achieving stable remission, that is, the absence of epileptic seizures. In some cases, it is even possible to cure the patient with neurosurgical methods completely. But almost every patient with epilepsy needs a carefully thought-out rehabilitation program, which also helps keep the disease under control.

Reasons for the development of epilepsy

The actual causes of epilepsy often remain unclear. But there is a broad classification of factors in developing this pathology, including immune, metabolic, genetic, structural, and other causes. If we single out the most common isolated factors, they include:

  • benign and malignant neoplasms of the brain;
  • genetic predisposition (cases of epilepsy in the family);
  • consequences of traumatic brain injury;
  • brain damage during fetal development or labor;
  • effects of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke;
  • infectious lesions of the brain, for example, due to meningitis, encephalitis, etc.


With diagnosed epilepsy, both conservative and surgical treatment is possible. The treatment method is chosen to take into account the characteristics of the clinical case, the diagnosis results, the frequency of epileptic seizures, etc.

If we analyze the features of both treatment options, in most cases, they are as follows:

  • Conservative therapy – is a therapy based on the use of antiepileptic drugs. The drug is selected individually (the same applies to dosage). Treatment continues if the patient has no seizures within six months of taking it. If convulsive seizures recur or side effects occur, the drug is replaced with an alternative, and observations continue.
  • Surgical treatment – this option is resorted to in case of ineffectiveness of conservative therapy and only if the site of epileptic activity is accurately verified. Such surgical interventions are performed by highly qualified neurosurgeons using expert-class equipment.

There are alternatives to conservative and surgical treatment, including vagus nerve stimulation and a linear accelerator to influence the epileptoid zone. These methods are used in cases where conservative treatment does not bring results, and surgical intervention is impossible.

Rehabilitation of epilepsy

Rehabilitation measures are essential for patients at various treatment stages and individuals with long-term remission. In this case, rehabilitation is aimed at reducing the number of epileptic seizures or ensuring their further absence after remission has been achieved.

Also, rehabilitation programs are being developed for patients after surgical treatment of epilepsy. In such cases, rehabilitation allows you to recover faster and can also be designed to eliminate some postoperative complications. In Kliniken Schmieder, rehabilitation programs are tailored to each patient individually and can combine the following areas:

Psychological support – the work of a psychologist and psychotherapist, first of all, is aimed at the psychological and emotional well-being of the patient. A person with epilepsy must not lose heart and remember that his problem can be solved. In addition, it is possible to reduce the number of seizures through well-built psychological assistance.
Physiotherapy includes physiotherapy exercises, classes in the pool, neuro-gymnastics, massage courses, etc. This direction allows you to balance the processes of excitation and inhibition in the brain, improve the tropism of brain tissues and expand the adaptive capabilities of the patient, thereby improving his general condition and reducing the likelihood of new epileptic seizures (or their intensity). The intensity of the loads and the methods of exercise are determined by taking into account the individual characteristics of each patient’s body.

Depending on the clinical case and the chosen treatment tactics’ characteristics, rehabilitation may include hardware physiotherapy, lifestyle correction, diet, supportive therapy, etc. The main task is to maximize the patient’s quality of life and achieve a stable absence of epileptic seizures.