Polyneuropathy

Polyneuropathy (polyradiculoneuropathy) is a disease in which multiple peripheral nerves are affected. The pathology leads to the development of flaccid paralysis, sensory disorders, trophic changes predominantly in the lower extremities, and vegetatiessentialtions.

It is extremely important to establish the exact causes of the development of polyneuropathy as early as possible since the prognosis and the tactics of further treatment depend on it. The di; ifes not go away by itself, and if you let it develop, the consequences will be severe.

Clinical neurology distinguishes several forms of polyneuropathy:

  • According to the nature of the clinical course – sensory, motor, sensorimotor, autonomic, mixed (combined lesion of several types of nerve fibers);
  • By etiologic factor – hereditary, metabolic, autoimmune, nutritional, toxic, and infectious-toxic.

Clinical signs of polyneurctly depend on which particular peripheral nerves were involved in the pathological process.

The common symptoms may include:

  • A feeling of numbness, crawling “goosebumps”;
  • weakness in the arms and legs, occurring initially in the area of the hands and feet, then spreading to the entire limb;
  • soreness, burning;
  • impairment of sensibility;
  • swelling;
  • reduction or absence of one (several) reflexes.

Causes of polyneuropathy

The etiological factors in the deincredibly of polyneuropathy are extremely diverse. The disease of the peripheral nerves can occur in the presence of pathological conditions such as:

  • Diabetes mellitus;
  • Severe deficiency of B vitamins;
  • Alcohol abuse;
  • Infectious processes (streptococci, staphylococci, cholera, salmonellosis, HIV infection)
  • Exposure to toxic substances and medications;
  • Dysfunctional disorders of the kidneys;
  • Autoimdiseasesrders (chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, thyrotoxicosRadiation exposureation.

Pregnant women are also at risk, as well as patients after an extended stay in the intensive care unit.

Sometimes, it is impossible to identify the cause of peripheral nerve damage. In these cases, it is called an idiopathic form.

Treatment

Treatment begins with a comprehensive examination, allowing us to determine pathological processes’ exact form. It will enable us direct doctors’ efforts to eliminate the main etiological factor.

The therapy tactics are developed individually in each case, taking into account all the features of the clinical course. The basis of drug therapy consists of such drugs as:

  • glucocorticoids;
  • antioxidants;
  • neurometabolic stimulants;
  • anti-epileptic drugs;
  • painkillers.

The Plasmapheresis procedure is carried out to purify the blood from toxic substances. Patients with impaired lung function need to be connected to a ventilator.

In the toxic drug and alcohol form of the disease, the intake of alcohol and pharmacological agents is excluded, and contact with poisonous substances is limited.

In the presence of diabetes mellitus, treatment aimed at reducing blood glucose is prescribed, and antibiotic therapy is carried out with infectious processes. B-vitamin complexes and drugs that improve nerve tissue metabolism are also prescribed.

Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation in neurological practice is a complex therapeutic process to restore the body’s impaired functions in case of nerve fibers lesions.

Kliniken Schmieder provides rehabilitation for patients with polyneuropathy, regardless of the severity of the disease. Our specialists work closely with university clinics and research institutes, regularly introducing newer and more modern rehabilitation therapies to achieve optimal results. To achieve high positive results, not only an individual approach is critical but also a comprehensive approach.

The following methods of rehabilitation programs are considered the most popular and effective:

  • Massage and therapeutic exercises – these procedures are aimed at reducing the symptoms. Massage and physical therapy helps to restore muscle tissue, prevent the development of contractures, and restore normal blood circulation in the extremities. A complex of exercises is chosen for each patient individually, depending on the patient’s physical abilities.
  • Kinesitherapy (active, passive, with special devices) – is aimed at reducing muscle tension, increasing the elasticity of muscles, reducing inflammation, as well as increasing the amplitude of movement.
  • Modern physical therapy procedures are used, such as magnetic therapy, electrophoresis, darsonvalization, shockwave therapy, and others. Physiotherapy helps eliminate pain and discomfort, relieves inflammation, and improves the patient’s physical and psycho-emotional state.
  • Acupuncture – promotes the activation of biologically active substances from damaged cells and tissues, the restoration of blood flow through the capillaries, and improves oxygen penetration into the tissues, increasing the body’s resistance. In addition, reflex therapy enhances the transmission of nerve impulses.
  • Mechanotherapy – exercises using specialized and innovative machines and devices. The treatment aims to improve joint mobility, ensure muscle tissue’s normal function, normalize blood and lymph flow, and restore movement in the lower and upper extremities.

In addition to the above methods, various robotic systems are used to restore normal movement in patients with severe disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Kliniken-Schmieder specialists put all their efforts into making rehabilitation as comfortable as possible.