Dementia is an acquired condition with a disorder of higher nervous activity. The disease is characterized by the loss of knowledge and skills gained during one’s lifespan and a reduced ability to learn. Dementia develops against a background of various pathological conditions that damage the brain’s neurons.

Today, more than 37 million people worldwide suffer from dementia, and the number of patients is increasing yearly.

Unfortunately, acquired dementia cannot be cured completely. Early diagnosis and treatment of the diseases that are the leading cause of dementia are of paramount importance to slow down the progression of the pathology.

Neurologists and psychiatrists work together to stabilize the condition of patients with impaired higher mental functions. If necessary, specialists from related specialties, such as cardiologists or orthopedists, are involved.

Timely diagnosis depends on how early the first symptoms of dementia are identified. If we talk about clinical signs of the disease, they rely entirely on the localization and size of the pathological focus.

There are three degrees of severity of the clinical course of dementia, which depend on the severity of the symptoms and the person’s adaptation to the social environment:

  • mild course (self-criticism is preserved, the ability to self-care as well, such as cleaning the house, washing dishes, cooking, taking care of personal hygiene);
  • moderate (the patient’s acknowledgment of his or her condition is impaired, there is a decrease in the ability to think, self-care skills are impaired, and constant supervision and care are needed);
  • severe (the patient requires care and constant supervision, as in this case, there is a complete loss of personality, and the person is unable to perform simple daily tasks such as washing and going to the toilet)

Causes of dementia

The emergence of dementia is directly related to organic brain damage, in which dystrophic changes in the brain structures are noted, leading to a distortion of CNS functions. Encephalopathy develops as a result of pathological processes or craniocerebral trauma.

In modern neurological practice, there are more than 200 different diseases that can cause the development of dementia. Some of the most common and common include:

  • Alzheimer’s disease (about 65% of all cases);
  • arterial hypertension;
  • deposition of atheromatous plaques in the vascular lumen;
  • alcohol abuse;
  • brain trauma;
  • cancer;
  • AIDS;
  • syphilitic lesions of the nervous system;
  • viral encephalitis;
  • chronic inflammation of the brain membranes;
  • severe somatic diseases, particularly of the endocrine organs.

Treatment Features

The diagnosis of dementia is established in the presence of five main symptoms:

  • memory impairment;
  • signs of organic damage to the central nervous system (speech and perception disorders, decreased self-criticism, aggression);
  • problems with adaptation in society and within the family;
  • symptoms of delirium (hallucinogenic and delusional states) are excluded;
  • characteristic changes on CT or MRI scans.

If the patient has a history of the above disorders for six months or more, a diagnosis of dementia is made.

Treatment tactics for dementia depend directly on the underlying disease that caused the development of dementia.

For this purpose, individually selected pharmacotherapy is prescribed, aimed at eliminating clinical symptoms, preserving self-care skills and abilities to adapt to the social environment, improving intellectual activity, normalizing blood circulation, as well as extending the life and improving its quality.


The rehabilitation program at Kliniken Schmieder is developed individually for each patient. In this case, rehabilitation treatment methods help the patient adapt to the prevailing conditions and slow down the progression of pathological processes.

To achieve a positive effect, holistic rehabilitation using modern techniques is carried out for the patient. The most popular and effective methods include:

  • Cognitive-behavioral training – a well-organized process to improve cognitive functions: memory, thinking, speech, attention, and ability to perceive information. It is indicated for patients with mild to moderate dementia. Various methods of cognitive training help stimulate brain activity and slow down the progression of the disease. Unique training programs and special exercises are used to improve memory.e.
  • Ergotherapy – is aimed at the development and normalization of patients’ activity. The first stage involves measures to preserve and develop self-care skills (dressing, personal hygiene). Afterward, the specialist works with the patient to improve his or her ability to get around and perform everyday household tasks. After the course of ergotherapy, the doctor compares the results with those planned and adjusts the rehabilitation program if necessary.
  • Speech therapist – the program aims to restore speech as much as possible. Articulation muscles massage, breathing techniques, finger, speech, and articulation exercises are used.
    Physiotherapy – both classic and modern procedures are used, including magnetic therapy, gymnastics, therapeutic massage, darsonvalization, and high-frequency treatment.
    Bobat therapy is an innovative treatment that combines neurological treatment and physical rehabilitation. Bobat therapy helps normalize muscle tone, restore movement and improve fine motor skills.

Rehabilitation for dementia can include many other methods and directions, depending on the severity of the disease, the patient’s age, and abilities.

The modern programs used help to significantly slow down the progression of pathological processes and normalize the disrupted processes as much as possible.